Saturday, August 23, 2008
Where should the National Hindu revolution of Jammu arrive? Deletion of Art. 370.
Where should the National Hindu revolution of Jammu arrive? Deletion of Art. 370.
In a restored Sun temple of Martand in Jammu and Kashmir.
The bases for the National Hindu revolution triggered in Jammu have to be discovered in the perceptions of deprivation felt by the Hindu majority in Jammu and Kashmir state of Hindusthan. As will be clear from the following indicators, there is discrimination against Jammu in terms of political representation, even though Jammu accounts for 75% of the States’ revenue. Discrimination against Jammu is most pronounced in the fact that unemployment is almost 70% in Jammu while only 29% of Kashmir labour-force are unemployed.
The real solution to the perceived discrimination against residents of Jammu goes beyond the humiliation piled upon them by denying a simple request for civic amenities to the pilgrims of Amarnath. It is natural to compare this inequity with the extraordinarily luxurious arrangements made all over Hindusthan for the Haj pilgrims and heavy subsidies given from the Central and state exchequers for the Haj pilgrimages.
The basic issues are thus economic and little to do with only ‘emotions’ as the Hon’ble Union Minister seems to indicate. Amarnath is for all humanity and should be the guiding paramaatman for all people of Hindusthan and should not be reduced to a mere ‘religious’ issue.
The question to ask is: Has the temporary provision of Art. 370 in the Constitution served its purpose? Yes, indeed. It has been on the statute for nearly 57 years now and it is time that this temporary provision is rescinded by a Presidential proclamation as provided for in the very same Article, thus absorbing Jammu and Kashmir (including the regions under Pakistani occupation) into the Union of India, that is Bharat.
The civilizational history of Jammu and Kashmir marks the region clearly as a crown-jewel of Hindu civilization, exemplified by the presence of Adi S’ankara in a hill near Srinagar.
Appended are selected verses from Nilamata Purana which indicate how Vasudeva (possibly Son of Devaki, Sri Krishna) made the unborn child of a queen as the King of Kas’mira. Vasudeva referred to in Nilamata Purana had anointed the unborn child (later named Gonanda) as King of Kas'mira.
King Lalitaditya had built the Sun temple at Martand. Avantivarman (9th cent.) built Srinagar as the capital city.
Kashmir Shaivism, exemplified by Abhinavagupta and Kshemaraja (10th -11th century ) presented S’iva as consciousness, s’akti its energy, and anN as the material world. “The mind is viewed as a hierarchical (krama) collection of agents ( kula ) that perceives its true self spontaneously ( pratyabhijna ) with a creative power that may be viewed as being pulsating (spanda) .” Prtyabhijna was recognition of Is’vara or S’iva by Utpala (c 900-950).
Hindu queen Kota Rani ruled from 1323 to 1338 after the death of King Rinchana. It was during the reign of Sikandar (1389-1413) that conversions to Islamism intensified. The tolerant regime of Sikandar's son Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470) helped many Hindus to return to the Kashmir valley. Akbar incorporated the region into his empire in 1587. In 1752, Afghans took control of the region; they were later defeated by Ranjit Singh in 1819. Gulab Singh, the Dogra ruler of Jammu purchased the Kashmir valley from the British in 1846; he also annexed Ladakh into the kingdom. When, in October 1947, some tribes of Pakistan tried to invade the valley, Maharaja of the region acceded to the Indian portion of partitioned Hindusthan. In a UN-supervised cease-fire declared on 1 Jan. 1949, Pakistan had been allowed to occupy 33,000 square miles of the 86,500 square miles of Jammu and Kashmir State.
Sheikh Abdullah (1905-1982) rejected the sectarian policies of M.A. Jinnah and the Muslim League. In 1939 the name of Muslim Conference headed by Sheikh Abdullah was changed to National Conference to emphasize its secular character.
This historical outline should form the basis for a peaceful resolution of the National Hindu revolution unleashed by the people of Jammu region. The solution lies in the deletion of temporary Constitutional provision Art. 370 by a Presidential Proclamation recognizing that all the people of Jammu and Kashmir state of the Union of Hindusthan were all Hindu before the onrush of Islamism in the 15th century. This move will be consistent with the directive principle of state polity which enjoins the State to institute a Uniform Civil Code applicable to the entire nation, just as the Criminal Procedure Code is a nationally-applicable criminal code.
Some key indicators of inequity in Jammu vis-à-vis Kashmir region of J&K State:
1 Area-26293 sq kms (Jammu) 15948 sq kms (Kashmir)
2 Total revenue generated-75 % (Jammu) 20% (Kashmir)
3 Total voters-3059986 (Jammu); 2883950 (Kashmir)
4 Assembly seats allotted-37 (Jammu); 46 (Kashmir)
5 Loksabha seats-2 (Jammu); 3 (Kashmir)
6 Cabinet ministers(till 7th July,08) –5 (Jammu); 14 (Kashmir)
7 Unemployment status-69.70 % (Jammu); 29.30% (Kashmir)
8 Representation in state govt. jobs-1.2 lakhs (Jammu); 3lakhs (Kashmir)
9 Percentage of employees from local area-less than 25% (Jammu); 99% (Kashmir)
10 Power generation -22 Mega Watt (Jammu); 304 Mega Watt (Kashmir)
11 Rural electrification-less than 70% (Jammu); 100% (Kashmir)
Translation of Nilamata Purana by Dr. Ved Kumari Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar
Om auspiciousness. Salutation to the auspicious Ganes'a.
Salutation to the venerable Vasudeva Om.
1-2. Having paid homage to the god Hari - the abode of Sri, the giver of boons, the highest lord, the master of three worlds, the finder of cow (earth), the imperishable and the unchangeable - the honourable king Janamejaya, the supporter of the family of Pariksita, asked Vyasa's pupil Vaisampayana.
3. Janamejaya (said): "Kings of various countries - the great heroes - came to the great Bharata war of my forefathers.
4-5. Say, why did not the king of Kas'mira come there ? Why was that king not chosen by the sons of Pandu and Dhrtarastra? The region of Kas'mira, of course, occupies an important place in the world.
6. Vaisampayana (said): "Accompanied by his four-fold armies (the king of Kas'mira) went to the Svayamvara to fight with Madhava, the son of Vasudeva.
7. A fight between him and the wise Vasudeva took place there as had taken place between Naraka and Vasudeva.
8-9. Consequently he was thrown down by Vasudeva in that good combat. Out of respect for that country, Vasudeva coronated his pregnant queen, so that the posthumous son might rule.
10. Afterwards, she gave birth to a male child who was named Gonanda. Being a child, he was brought neither by the Pandavas nor by the Kauravas."
11. Janamejaya (spoke): "O best among the twice-born, why did the high-minded Vasudeva honour (so much) the country that he himself coronated a woman ?"
12- 13. Vaisampayana (said): "O best amongst the kings, the goddess Uma is the same as Kas'mira. What was formerly, an enjoyable, heart-enrapturing lake for six Manvantaras since the beginning of the Kalpa, became a beautiful territory in this Manvantara.
14-16. Filled with rows of rice-fields, fully thriving and endowed with good fruits etc., inhabited by the people who perform sacrifices and are engaged in self-study and contemplation - virtuous ascetics well-versed in the Vedas and the Vedangas - by highly prosperous Ksatriyas adept in (the use of) all the arms and weapons, by Vaisyas engaged in (earning) the means of livelihood, and by sudras serving the twice-born, it is bedecked with the temples of the gods and all the holy places, and is auspicious.
17. 0 protector of men ! all the sacred places, which are on the earth, are there. Thronged with the hermitages of the sages ( it is ) pleasant in heat and cold and is auspicious.
18. Unconquerable by the enemy-kingdoms, ignorant of the fears born of them, rich in cows, horses. elephants etc. it is devoid of the fear of famines.
19. Not dependent on rains, enjoyable, holy, beneficial for living beings, endowed with the qualities (of producing) all grains, it is devoid of dangers and is thickly populated.
20. Possessed of the grace like that of a temple due to the (presence of) tender ladies, it is devoid of evil serpents, tigers, buffaloes and bears.
21. Always full of festivals, twangings of the bows and the sounds of the Vedic recitals, it is crowded with ever- sportive men and is surrounded by ever happy persons.
22. Full of gardens and pleasure-groves and resounding with the sounds of drums and lutes, it is always crowded with people fond of drinks and is dear to the hearts of good men.
23. Laden with various types of flowers, fruits, trees, creepers and medicinal herbs, it is full of hosts of wild beasts and is enjoyed by the Siddhas and the Caranas.
24-25. O controller of the enemies, the holy region of Kas'mira is possessed of all the sacred places. There are sacred lakes of the Nagas and the holy mountains; there are holy rivers and also the holy lakes; there are highly sacred temples and also the hermitages attached to them. .
26. In the center flows, making as it were the parting of the hair, the Vitasta - the highest goddess visibly born of the Himalaya."